Elasticity of Substitution – Louth Online http://louthonline.com/ Thu, 30 Jun 2022 13:18:18 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 http://louthonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/louthonline-icon-70x70.png Elasticity of Substitution – Louth Online http://louthonline.com/ 32 32 Are you drinking enough water? http://louthonline.com/are-you-drinking-enough-water/ Thu, 30 Jun 2022 12:03:47 +0000 http://louthonline.com/are-you-drinking-enough-water/ And is sparkling water hydrating? Here’s what we’ve learned, plus tips to make drinking water easier.

Aging brings physical changes that affect the body’s ability to cool down and stay hydrated. You depend on water; in fact, it makes up more than half of your total body weight. It is needed for temperature regulation, waste disposal, joint health, and more. Dehydration can occur if you don’t have enough water in your body to perform these tasks.

Many people have been told that seltzer water is dehydrating, but that’s a myth. It’s as hydrating as water – the mouthfeel is just different | Credit: Getty

Medications can play a role

The elderly are more likely to suffer from dehydration due to diabetes or kidney disease. Certain medications can affect a person’s ability to stay hydrated, and older people often don’t sweat enough to cool their bodies on the hottest days. Poor circulation or reduced sweat production due to medication can also play a part in the problem. Even the loss of 2% of a person’s body weight has a negative effect on thermoregulation, physical activity and cognitive function. If an older person has balance or mobility issues, it may interfere with their ability (or willingness) to reach a water source.

“People with cognitive impairment are particularly susceptible to dehydration.”

Is it the taste?

“[Older persons] often have diminished taste receptors, which makes bland things even bland,” says Kevon Owen of Owen Clinic in Oklahoma. “If they don’t like the water initially, it’s hard to get them to drink it. Also, the inconvenience of going to the toilet more often is another thing that can make drinking water unattractive. .”

External factors, such as location, are also important to consider, says Michael Wasserman, Chair of Public Policy Committee, California Association of Long Term Care Medicine. “There’s no doubt that increased activity, living in a warmer climate, and lower humidity can increase fluid needs,” he says. “People with cognitive impairment are particularly susceptible to dehydration.”

How much liquid is enough?

Organizations cannot agree on a fixed answer to this question. The Mayo Clinic cites a recommendation from the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine that suggests 15.5 cups (124 oz) of fluids per day for men and 11.5 cups (92 oz) of fluids per day for women.

But be careful: this guideline includes all types of fluids from food and drink, as well as water. Many fitness and nutrition experts say that eight 8 oz. (64 oz) glasses of water a day is enough. So how do you know you are drink enough the water?

“It depends on the situation,” says Angel PlanellsSeattle-based registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) and national media spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

“In general, a smaller person may need less than a larger person, and it can go from there. It depends on your kidneys, your cardiovascular system, the medications you take and more.”

“Urinary tract infections produce exponentially greater problems in older people,” says Owen. “But drinking more water would help fight them.”

Warning signs of dehydration

Plannells offers some tips for being aware of your hydration:

  • Urine color. Is it light or dark yellow? “The lighter the better, but that doesn’t have to be clear,” says Plannells.
  • Frequency of urination. You must replace the liquids that you have eliminated.
  • Sweating/sweating. During the summer, drink more to compensate for the heat.
  • Skin elasticity. Does your skin rebound quickly or does it take a while? A slow response could mean dehydration.
  • bad breath.
  • The thirst. Be aware, however, that older adults may have a limited ability to feel or communicate thirst.
  • Choice of life and life situation. Dressing too warmly for summer heat, hot living conditions, overcrowding, and direct sun exposure can affect hydration.

Wasserman also advises caregivers to watch for these warning signs of insufficient water intake in patients:

  • Dry mouth
  • Confusion
  • Irritability
  • Headache
  • Constipation

Celery matters: making hydration appealing

How should a caregiver approach a patient who is not drinking enough water, or perhaps rebels against drinking water?

Here is some good news. Water is important, but fluid intake is essential to avoid dehydration. Milk, juice and soda are all good for fluid intake, Plannells says. “Food can also contribute to hydration. When you look at the word carbohydratesyou see the second half of the word is hydrate. So when we look at rice, potatoes, pasta, whole grains, and a number of fruits and vegetables, there will be some water absorbed from consuming certain foods. Think light and refreshing.”

Some useful hydrating foods are:

  • celery
  • cucumber
  • salad
  • zucchini
  • watermelon
  • strawberries
  • cantaloupe
  • cauliflower
  • peaches
  • oranges and grapefruit
  • broths and soups
  • tomatoes
  • peppers
  • cabbage
  • yogurt

Plannells warns that caffeinated beverages, including energy drinks, contain a natural diuretic and could increase urine production (and fluids should be replaced).

“Cold soft drinks may be able to quench a person’s thirst more, which may lead to less water consumption later on,” he says.

Drinking alcohol can alter fluid levels in the body due to vasopressin, which is involved in regulating urine production.

“Seltzer [or sparkling] the water is tricky,” says Plannells. “A lot of people have been told it dehydrates, but that’s a myth. The mouthfeel may be different, but it’s just as hydrating.”

Encouraging Words Caregivers Can Offer

If you are caring for an older person, acknowledge their reasons for not wanting to drink water. Explain how important hydration is for optimal health and reassure them that they are not “a burden” or “fussy” when they have to use the bathroom more often, or when they ask for help. Find ways to manage hydration without disrupting their favorite routines.

“Schedule certain parts of the day to drink more to compensate for times when it’s less convenient to find a restroom,” Owen suggests. “Set goals for them to help them drink more water. Make it something you do together. Flavors and water are good, but some don’t like the artificial sweetness of flavors. Fruit is a good substitution.”

“Cold soft drinks may be able to quench a person’s thirst more, which may lead to less water consumption later on.”

In the case of someone with cognitive impairment, Wasserman says, the caregiver can use their imagination more and look for ways to encourage fluid intake.

“Drinking with the person can encourage them and ensure fluids are readily available,” he says.

Can you drink too much water?

According to Wasserman, excessive fluid intake can lead to hyponatremia, which can manifest as confusion, headache, nausea, and gait instability. To manage water intake, a caregiver can record the number of ounces or cups each day and note times or situations when a loved one is more likely to drink water or other liquids. Call 911 if you see symptoms of hyponatremia or dehydration.

Learn more about hot weather safety

These organizations provide resources for seniors and caregivers.

National Energy Assistance Guidance Service

National Institute of Aging: Get free hot weather safety publications in English and Spanish from the website or call 1-800-222-2225.

The National Council on Aging

Rosie Wolf Williams
10 Best Wheat Flour Substitutes http://louthonline.com/10-best-wheat-flour-substitutes/ Thu, 23 Jun 2022 17:08:00 +0000 http://louthonline.com/10-best-wheat-flour-substitutes/

Oatmeal is another popular substitute for wheat flour. Slightly sweet and nutty, oatmeal does not have as neutral a flavor as white wheat flour, but it can be to your advantage in baking, for example. Okonomi Kitchen. Additionally, oat flour has a softer texture than wheat flour, which can enhance the tenderness of cakes and quick breads (i.e. actually, Food & Wine considers the texture of oatmeal, as well as its absorbency, to be “essential” in gluten-free white and yellow cake recipes.

At the same time, oatmeal is relatively high in protein and fiber, so it can add thickness and chewiness to cookies, and it works especially well as a substitute for wheat flour in recipes that contain eggs, which help add structure and elasticity to baked cookies. goods, by Cookie and Kate. For recipes without eggs, you can add xanthan gum – a quarter of a teaspoon for each cup of flour, per King Arthur cooking. Additionally, you can combine oatmeal with almond flour, which adds moisture and weight, per Okonomi Kitchen.

That said, although the protein content of oat flour is similar to that of bread flour (e.g. VegFAQ), oatmeal is actually not recommended as a substitute for wheat flour on an individual basis in yeast breads, according to Enjoy your meal. For these, you’ll get better results if you only swap out about a quarter of the requested Wheat Flour.

Catapulted by increasing applications in the automotive industry, demand for polyisobutene will reach $4.8 billion by 2032 http://louthonline.com/catapulted-by-increasing-applications-in-the-automotive-industry-demand-for-polyisobutene-will-reach-4-8-billion-by-2032/ Wed, 15 Jun 2022 12:00:00 +0000 http://louthonline.com/catapulted-by-increasing-applications-in-the-automotive-industry-demand-for-polyisobutene-will-reach-4-8-billion-by-2032/

High molecular weight polyisobutene will contribute more than 65% of total sales in 2032

An exhaustive study by Fact.MR on the global polyisobutene market provides an unbiased analysis of the key driver facilitating sales growth between 2022 and 2032. The study also offers in-depth information on emerging trends and opportunities that are increasing the polyisobutene demand across different segments including product type, molecular weight and end use.

NEW YORK, June 15, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Global polyisobutene market sales totaled US$2.2 billion in 2021. Due to the increasing use of organic and eco-friendly industrial chemicals in various industries, the demand for polyisobutene is expected to reach US$2.3 billion by 2022.

Polyisobutene is gaining popularity in the automotive industry, due to its favorable properties such as gas impermeability, flexibility, thermal stability, chemical resistance, etc. Attributed to this, it is widely used in the production of automotive components such as gaskets, garden hoses, tubeless tires and window strips.

Hence, surging auto sales are expected to create lucrative opportunities in the global market. Driven by this, polyisobutene sales are expected to exceed a valuation of US$4.8 billion by the end of 2032, growing at a robust CAGR of 7.5% over the forecast period 2022-2032.

For more market insights, get a sample of this report!

According to Fact.MR, it is estimated that high molecular weight polyisobutene remains in high demand in the market and accounted for more than 65% of the total demand share in 2021. The growing applications in transportation, industrial and food as well as the production of films, adhesives and lubricants is expected to further accelerate the segment’s growth.

Key points to remember:

  • The United States is believed to remain a dominant market in North Americarepresenting a revenue share of nearly US$1.4 billion end of 2032.
  • Sales of polyisobutene are expected to increase at a steady pace in Germanydue to the increase in motor vehicle sales in the country.
  • China should represent a preponderant part in the Asia Pacific market, projecting growth at a CAGR of 7.9% over the assessment period.
  • India is expected to emerge as a highly lucrative market for polyisobutene, owing to its growing application in the production of paints, coatings and lubricants.
  • Among the end-use verticals, the automotive segment is expected to hold the maximum revenue share, posting a sales growth of 8% CAGR between 2022 and 2032.

Growth drivers:

  • Growing demand for paints and coatings, due to increased building and construction activities, especially in emerging countries such as China, India, Australiaand others are expected to strengthen polyisobutene sales in the market.
  • Shift customer preference towards adopting environmentally friendly additives such as polyisobutene for soot and sludge removal during manufacture of tubeless tires is estimated to increase the demand in the global market.


  • The implementation of stringent environmental regulations regarding the production of polyisobutene, due to the discharge of hazardous waste, is restraining the growth of the global market.
  • The existence of a number of alternatives such as nitrile rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber and others hinders the sales of polyisobutene.

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Competitive Landscape:

Leading polyisobutene manufacturers in the global market are emphasizing adoption strategies such as expanding production capacity, acquisition, partnership and collaboration to increase their revenue share and gain an edge on the market.

For instance,

  • In January 2019Total Energies and Saudi Aramco have announced that they have entered into a collaboration with a South Koreapetrochemicals manufacturer, Daelim Co. Ltd. for the development of a modern polyisobutene plant by the end of 2024.

Top Companies Featured by Fact.MR

  • Daelim Co. Ltd.
  • PTC Group
  • INEOS Group
  • Kothari Petrochemicals
  • Lubrizol Company
  • ExxonMobil Corporation
  • Lanxess AG
  • Zhejiang Shunda new material Co., Ltd.
  • Sinopec Beijing Yanshan Company
  • Honeywell International Inc.
  • Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim
  • Shandong Chambroad Petrochemicals Co. Ltd.
  • Zibo Qixiangtengda Chemcial Co., Ltd.
  • Evonik Industries AG.
  • PTC Group
  • Global Bioenergies
  • LyondellBasell Industries Holdings BV

More valuable information about Polyisobutene Market

In its recent survey, Fact.MR highlights the crucial factors driving the growth of the global Polyisobutene market between 2022 and 2032. The study also offers vital insights into the drivers that are accelerating the growth of the Polyisobutene market through an detailed segmentation as follows:

By product type:

  • Conventional
  • Very responsive

By molecular weight:

By end use:

  • Automotive
  • Industrial
  • Food
  • Other end users

By region:

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • APAC
  • AEM

Request a methodology and get an overview of our expertise

Key questions addressed in the Polyisobutene Market report

  • What is the estimated revenue of the polyisobutene market during the forecast period?
  • What are the challenges faced in the polyisobutene market?
  • Which region is estimated to exhibit the fastest growth rate in the global polyisobutene market in 2022-2032?
  • What is the projected market valuation of the polyisobutene market in 2022?
  • What are the determining factors of polyisobutene during the period 2022-2032?
  • What is the expected growth rate of the polyisobutene market to 2032?

Discover Fact.MR’s coverage in the field of chemistry and materials

Polyester Filament Market: The increasing use of polyester filament as a substitute of nylon and cotton for the production of textile products such as garments, protective clothing and others is estimated to facilitate the growth of the market. For this reason, the demand for polyester filament is expected to grow at 5.1% CAGR through 2032.

Polyacrylates market: The growing application of polyacrylates in the adhesives and sealants industry, due to its high transparency, impressive impact resistance, elasticity and heat resistance, among others, is increasing the demand in the market . Additionally, increasing use in manufacturing dental products such as artificial teeth, jawbones and dental fillings is expected to boost sales of polyacrylates.

polyetherimide market: Due to the rising cost of fuels, a rapid increase in the shift of customers towards the adoption of lightweight alternatives, such as aluminum, is seen in the manufacturing of automotive and aerospace components. Since polyetherimide plays a vital role in aluminum manufacturing, the above-mentioned upward trend is expected to help polyetherimide sales reach US$870 million by 2027.

polymer seals market: According to Fact.MR analysis, the global polymer gaskets market is expected to witness a healthy CAGR of almost 6% throughout the forecast period from 2021 to 2031. Rising expenditure on research and development to offer future growth opportunities to manufacturers in various application sectors.

Polypeptide market: The polypeptide market is expected to grow significantly in the coming years, with a high prevalence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, rising healthcare expenditures, and advancements in the manufacturing technology of polypeptide therapies.

polyglycerates market: Polyglycerol Market Basis of its Available Form (Solid and Liquid) Product Type Basis (Polyglycerol Monooleate, Polyglycerol Dioleate, Polyethylene Glycerol Mono Stearate, Polyethylene Glycerol Di Stearate) – Global Review 2018 to 2028

polythiols market: According to the Fact.MR study, the polythiols market is witnessing passive growth due to the limited number of active players in the industry and the availability of better alternatives. Global sales of polythiols have been close US$200 million in 2018, and the market is expected to register a CAGR of around 4.0% through 2029.

polyphenols market: Polyphenols market share and trend analysis, by form (liquid, powder), by source (fruits, plant extracts, others), by end-use (dietary supplements, functional beverages, others) – Global Market Insights 2018 to 2026.

polyetherketone market: Polyetherketone Market Share and Trend Analysis, By Product (Electrophilic Substitution, Nucleophilic Substitution), By Application (Machinery Parts, Nuclear Power Plant Equipment, Automobile Parts, Aerospace Components) and Forecast by Region – Global Market Overview 2018 at 2028.

About Fact.MR

Fact.MR is a market research and advisory agency with deep expertise in emerging market intelligence. Covering a wide range – from automotive and industry 4.0 to healthcare, chemicals and materials, and the most specialized categories. 80% of Fortune 1000 companies trust us with critical decision making.


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YC Maikyau, the “hero of the Oputa panel” who intends to lead the bar http://louthonline.com/yc-maikyau-the-hero-of-the-oputa-panel-who-intends-to-lead-the-bar/ Sun, 12 Jun 2022 09:16:00 +0000 http://louthonline.com/yc-maikyau-the-hero-of-the-oputa-panel-who-intends-to-lead-the-bar/

Nigerian lawyers are gearing up across the country to elect the next president of the Nigerian Bar Association (“NBA”). The NBA is not just an amalgamation of lawyers qualified to practice law in Nigeria, it has become the most influential professional association in the country, with enormous responsibilities that anchor for the most part the aspirations of our constitutional democracy. The presidency of the NBA is therefore not an average office and it cannot be mistaken if the occupant is portrayed as a mini Nigerian president with around 125 branches scattered across the country under his supervision. Not to mention the broad responsibility to the people of Nigeria as circumscribed in the founding documents of the Association.

A non-renewable two-year term, around this time in 2020, the Law Society, and indeed the country as a whole, was charged as the Association witnessed a historic contest for office by the triumvirate by Mr. Dele Adesina, SAN, Dr. Babatunde Ajibade SAN and Mr. Olumide Akpata. While the first two were Senior Advocates of distinction, the second was something of an outlier who dared to challenge the status quo. In the entire history of the Association, only a handful of non-Senior Advocates have had the chance to lead the Association. Olumide Akpata’s ambition was therefore a punch in the eyes of the Establishment.

His campaign, however, appealed to the younger segment of the bar, which was in the majority. Before long, it had morphed into such a national movement that doctors, engineers, professionals in other disciplines, and even Nigerians in general were seen advocating a #BarThatWorksForAll which was the slogan of the campaign. by Olumide Akpata.

Indeed, even before the first ballot, it was clear to everyone that the election was an exercise in formality. Olumide Akpata would become the Association’s 30th President, in circumstances that have made him a person of interest when it comes to the election campaign in Nigeria. The rest, as they say, is history today.

However, with the administration’s days now numbered, attention has turned to who will succeed Olu, as he is popularly known. The president’s office is zoned to the northern bar which runs through the 19 states of the federation, in keeping with a tradition that has kept the association going since the crisis that rocked it 3 decades ago. Three candidates were endorsed by the NBA Election Committee, led by Ayo Akintunde, SAN, namely, Chief Joe Kyari Gadzama SAN; Yakubu Chonoko Maikyau SAN, and Mr. Jonathan Taidi, former Secretary General of the Association.

While the competition somewhat mimics the 2020 race, being among two senior lawyers and one non-senior lawyer from Nigeria, there is no indication that the 2020 upheaval would be repeated for many reasons, which is beyond the scope of this intervention. . . Bar policy watchers are somewhat confident that by July 16, Nigerian lawyers would make a choice between YC and JK.

Of the two, Yakubu Chonoko Maikyau, SAN of all indications seems the most likely to emerge. For a campaign that has struggled to kick into high gear, Kebbi-born Silk appears to have captured the imagination of Nigerian lawyers: young and old, who see him as a prototype of the new and emerging bar leadership that ‘Olumide Akpata characterizes.

Unlike his opponent, JK Gadzama-SAN, who has struggled to shirk his Establishment toga at a time when the Bar is embroiled in a cold war with an influential ruling bloc poised to undermine authority of the more than 60-year-old Association, YC represents the New Order which is committed to returning the Bar to its true owners: the generality of the Bar community. Again, as JK would run for the third time, after running and losing in contentious elections, particularly the 2016 elections, in circumstances some people claim he has yet to left behind, YC represents a breath of fresh air and one who wouldn’t deploy high office to possibly settle old scores.

As a young barrister of about nine years after the qualifying experience, providence propelled Maikyau onto the national stage as counsel on the Nigerian Human Rights Inquiry Commission-Oputa Panel , created by President Olusegun Obasanjo in 1999 as the country returned to democratic rule. He was almost certain that his career was written in the stars. A dozen years later, he was taking the coveted oath of Senior Solicitor of Nigeria and with it rose to the pinnacle of legal practice in Nigeria through hard work and distinction of character.

A cerebral lawyer indisputably at the forefront, in Re:Abdullahi (2018) 14 NWLR (Pt.1639) 272, he proved the elasticity of the law by convincing the Supreme Court of Nigeria to make an unprecedented decision, allowing the substitution of a deceased appellant in a criminal matter with the administrators of his estate in an effort to preserve civil rights in his estate. A classic place this has caused a welcome paradigm shift in Nigerian jurisprudence on the subject.

Through his mantra “Building a Dynamic Bar”, Y. C recognizes the need for the Bar to pull in one direction while consolidating the achievements of what would be the Akpata years. His 25-page manifesto tells the story of a modest, pragmatic reformer who understands that sustainability, to be organic, must be progressive. The dynamism he speaks of is one that would raise the bar beyond its current heights to the stratospheric altitude where it would meet the needs of the people it is meant to serve.

“The NBA under my leadership will not just be a big, strong, and inclusive bar; it will seek/pursue its members to bring them into the fold. This must be done with the knowledge that it is the NBA’s responsibility to look after the general welfare and welfare of its members – after the “Good Shepherd” similiarity. We will seek out each member, bring them into the fold, and offer the benefit of membership to the whole body. We understand that only by identifying with its members can the NBA appreciate their individual/collective needs and forge the requisite entrepreneurial will that will enable the NBA to fulfill its constitutional purposes,” he wrote. in its manifesto.

With hindsight, his background no doubt prepared him, even unconsciously, for the thankless task of leading the Bar. Having served the Association and the nation as a whole, in many capacities, this is a company that would put to good use his leadership and administrative skills which have seen him excel as both a consummate professional and a family man. . Under his leadership as the pioneering Chairman of the NBA Welfare Committee, under the Olumide Akpata administration, Nigerian lawyers have had a taste of what is to come, should he become the 31st Chairman of the NBA. the NBA. Through programs such as the NBA-Law Pavillion partnership run by his committee, the NBA-NHIS program, and the NBA-Leadway Improved Life-Insurance program, there is prima facie evidence that an NBA led by YC Maikyau would prioritize to the welfare of lawyers. and exploring other ways to make membership in the Bar a value-driven dynamic.

As Olumide Akpata prepares to hand over after a good run, so far as one can infer general feelings at the Bar, a heavy burden now rests on the shoulders of the awakened members of the profession who, by the choices they made on July 16 would determine the course and trajectory of their much admired profession and association.

In this sense, the emerging consensus is that YC Maikyau, SAN is not just footing the bill. It is also widely acclaimed; he is the missing piece of the continuity puzzle. But time will tell.

A lawyer and public interest commentator, Raymond Nkannebe can be reached via [email protected]. He tweets @RaymondNkannebe

]]> Addressing pain points in producing protein-rich products with instrumentation http://louthonline.com/addressing-pain-points-in-producing-protein-rich-products-with-instrumentation/ Thu, 02 Jun 2022 21:32:40 +0000 http://louthonline.com/addressing-pain-points-in-producing-protein-rich-products-with-instrumentation/

Homemade fresh wheat bread with whole grains

By Arnaud Dubat, Product and Applications Director of CHOPIN Technologies, a brand of products from KPM analysis

Protein is still a nutrient of choice for consumers. The desire to follow healthier eating habits has prompted food processors to include additional and unique proteins in a variety of categories, including snacks and baked goods. An increase in non-traditional protein ingredients and flours that can include legumes, hemp, and even insect powders, presents both opportunities and challenges for commercial bakeries and snack food processors. Appropriate instrumentation can help answer these pressing questions:

  • How can I incorporate additional/new proteins into the formulation while maintaining desired product characteristics such as texture, volume and overall consistency?
  • What impact will these new protein varieties have on processing?

Consumers see protein as a desirable macronutrient

Consumer trends and eating habits are driving the development and introduction of protein-enriched foods, including baked goods and snacks. According to 2022 International Food and Information Council (IFIC) Food and Health SurveyProtein is the top nutrient of choice sought by consumers of all ages, with 59% of adults in the United States consciously trying to include more protein in their diet.

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But not just any type of protein will do. Consumers are increasingly turning to plant-based proteins for a variety of reasons, including sustainability and a better product profile for you. To cite just one example of the result of this trend, pea protein sales are soaring, with a Projected global CAGR of 23.6% from 2018 to 2025.

Along with their benefits, however, new protein ingredients also pose challenges for food manufacturers trying to integrate them into product development, especially for baked goods.

Introducing additional/new proteins into a baked product recipe can influence end product characteristics such as texture, volume and overall consistency that consumers expect from a brand.

Protein Incorporation Poses Challenges

The primary goal of any baker when creating a protein-enriched product is to stay as close to the look, taste, and texture of the original as possible. One of the challenges to achieving this goal, among many others related to protein enrichment, is hydration. The amount or percentage of protein in a powder or flour has an impact on water absorption.

Plant proteins for baking can include single flours, concentrates or isolates, with protein content ranging from 10-30% on a dry basis for flours and up to 85% for isolate.

The higher the protein concentration, the greater the water absorption. Depending on the application, if the flour does not absorb enough liquid or water, it can create a dry, crumbly texture in the finished product. On the other hand, if too much water is added to compensate, the dough can become sticky, causing machinability problems.

Proteins also have an impact on the extensibility and elasticity of the dough as well as on the volume, structure and palatability of the final product. Depending on the source, alternative proteins can have taste and texture issues. The bottom line is that the more protein of any type added to a formulation, the more it can affect the processing and characteristics of the final product. The goal is to find the right balance.

Formulators are turning to blends or hybrid blends

What we are seeing on the market right now are many mixes and blends that include whey and legumes. Hemp flour is all the rage and, of course, various companies are experimenting with insect powder.

When creating a mix or mix, proper testing can help the baker determine appropriate levels to replace wheat flour with an alternative. A study in Applied Science compared breads incorporating pea protein concentrate and soy protein concentrate to a standard control bread made strictly with wheat flour. The study replaced wheat flour with 5%, 10% and 15%, concluding that a minimum incorporation of 10% of the alternative flour allowed for a “high protein” claim in the finished product.

The higher the level of protein concentrate added, the stronger the color intensity of the crumb and crust. Additionally, a striking contrast was observed in bread volume, porosity, and elasticity in the protein-concentrated breads compared to the control.

Overall, the study concluded that bakers striving for a nutrition claim might find it easier to replace wheat with high-protein alternative flours. Compared to alternative low protein flours, higher protein flours may be included in a lower percentage of the overall formula. This can help mitigate gluten loss on dough rheology and final product texture, appearance and acceptance.

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Protein is linked to gluten levels

Gluten is the dividing line between what is considered functional flour and what is not. For this reason, it contributes to wheat’s reputation as the most versatile of flours used for baking.

Wheat flour protein levels correlate with gluten content. Durum wheat contains a higher level of protein and gluten than soft wheat. Typically, baked goods such as bread, bagels, and even pretzels rely on gluten and a higher protein level (12-14%) for structure compared to pastries made with pastry flour. (8-9% protein) and biscuits or cakes (5-14%). 8% protein).

Gluten is what makes a dough a dough, so it is stretchy and holds gas to form a proper shape and texture, among other properties.

When combining alternative protein flours with wheat flour, the protein level and therefore the gluten content of the selected wheat flour should be taken into consideration for proper dough development.

Protein is only part of the total equation

The properties of gluten help illustrate that an initial analysis of flour provides only a fraction of the information that a full analysis could provide to help guide the baking process.

Dough is a complex system with several interacting components. Heating a protein changes its structure and its interaction with other ingredients. The overall behavior of the dough and its final result are related to the interactions between the flours, the starches and the other ingredients included in the formulation, as well as the mixing times, resting time, time and temperatures. An objective analytical tool can quantify dough behaviors and rheological properties.

The useful information for the baker resulting from the analytical tests must answer questions such as:

  • How will this material behave in a paste?
  • What will happen during proofing and baking?
  • How much water should I add for a good consistency of the dough?
  • Will this ingredient and corresponding form adjustments impact mixing time?
  • If another protein is mixed into a mix with wheat flour, what protein content should the wheat flour contain?

For example, a series of analytical tests performed on two varieties of cricket protein powder mixed with wheat flour answered many of these questions. The tests identified the optimal amounts of cricket flour to incorporate and measured the impact of these protein powders on the entire production process, from the formation of the dough to the final bread.

Tests have shown that it is possible to replace traditional wheat flour with up to 5% cricket protein powder. Adding larger amounts had a big impact on scalability. Poor dough expansion and poor gas retention resulted in lower loaf volume and fewer air cells. It also caused faster staling.

There are many varieties of insect powder available on the market, and each may behave in a different way, requiring independent analysis of each type.

Analytical tools paint a clearer picture of pulp quality

A pulp characterizer provides a universal and complete analysis of the behavior of the dough during kneading, during the heating and cooling cycle and at different kneading speeds.

Universal means the Dough Characterizer can analyze the behavior of a wide range of flour types, such as white flour, whole grain, rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, flax, amaranth, potato, buckwheat, quinoa, millet, teff, etc.

He is complete because it assesses six criteria of pulp quality throughout the pulp production cycle:

  • water absorption
  • Effects of the mixture (development and stability)
  • Heat resistance of gluten
  • Maximum viscosity
  • Amylase activity
  • Starch retrogradation

The analytical process is also versatile, offering bakers several test protocols to better characterize dough behaviors using a small sample of just 50g of the selected flour or a 75g dough sample.

In one case, a baker had problems with high water absorption and sticky dough. After investigation with an analysis tool, the baker learned that this situation was due to too much damaged starch and a low balance with proteins. The baker was able to correct this problem by setting new guidelines for the miller (flour supplier) while adjusting the production process based on a deeper understanding of dough behavior.

Bakers can use a universal dough analyzer like the Mixolab 2 from CHOPIN Technologies shown here to assess the quality and baking performance of flours, including high protein formulations.

Validation of the cooking process

Instrumental analysis offers bakers faster validation of an ingredient or processing parameter. This eliminates the rigorous, time-consuming and costly process of multiple production tests. Bakers can move quickly from testing to production.

Additionally, it offers a more comprehensive test model compared to test methods that simply analyze protein content without examining characteristics affecting dough formation and staling.

By seeing a complete picture, bakers can adjust their formulas for desired dough behavior and better machinability. In addition, the analysis dramatically speeds up the reformulation and testing of new products. Companies can introduce new products at a lower cost and with a better return on investment.

Arnaud Dubat is Product & Applications Director for the CHOPIN product range of KPM analysis. He holds a master’s degree in science and technology in the food industry as well as a master’s degree in strategic marketing. He is based in Paris, France.

]]> Taxes on sugary drinks reduce sales by 15% http://louthonline.com/taxes-on-sugary-drinks-reduce-sales-by-15/ Wed, 01 Jun 2022 15:03:01 +0000 http://louthonline.com/taxes-on-sugary-drinks-reduce-sales-by-15/

Taxes on sugary drinks (SSB) have been effective in stifling sales, according to a systematic review of the literature commissioned by the World Health Organization.

Among 62 studies included in a meta-analysis, taxes on sugary drinks were quite effective in driving up the price of targeted drinks — with a tax pass-through rate of 82% (95% CI 66-98, P<0.001, I2= 99%), reported Tatiana Andreyeva, PhD, of the University of Connecticut at Hartford, and her colleagues.

“That is, it was estimated that an equivalent SSB tax of 10% would increase consumer prices of taxed beverages by 8.2%, suggesting incomplete pass-through and fiscal under-transfer. “, underlined the group in Open JAMA Network.

In a accompanying commentaryChristina A. Roberto, PhD, of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and her colleagues noted that tax advocates have recommended implementing SSB taxes at the national or state level — not at the state level. the city – in order to fend off the risks of tax avoidance seen here.

But even with this slight absorption of the SSB tax, there has been a significant drop in demand for these drinks due to the increase in prices. Across all included studies, the estimated price elasticity of SSB sales fell from 1.59 (95% CI -2.11 to -1.08, P<0.001, I2=100%). This gave a 15% (95% CI -20 to -9, P<0.001, I2=100%) average drop in SSB sales.

The researchers also found a trend of an 18% drop in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption due to lower sales, although this did not reach statistical significance. However, this may be due to the fact that 75% of the consumer studies included in the analysis were classified as “low quality”.

Despite this decline, Andreyeva’s group found no evidence of substitution with respect to untaxed beverage sales. And interestingly, several studies have also indicated a decline in total grocery sales.

Not surprisingly, when it comes to local taxes on sugary drinks in the United States, the majority of studies have found a significant increase in cross-border purchases.

“When such substitution is not observed, it could mean that consumers are replacing sugary drinks with tap water or not replacing them at all,” commenters explained, adding that “some consumers may substitute sweetened beverages by liquid and powdered beverage concentrates, which are excluded from most taxes while used to make sweetened beverages.

While other factors certainly play a role in the risk of chronic diseases linked to dietary sugar, such as diabetes and obesity, Roberto’s group said “improving food choices is a laudable goal in itself.” .

“Jurisdictions considering implementing these taxes should continue to design them in consultation with low-income and marginalized communities,” they advised. “These communities may bear the short-term burden of the tax, even as they reap longer-term benefits, so it is particularly important that revenues are reinvested in ways that meet their social and economic needs.”

For the analysis, Andreyeva and her colleagues sifted through global peer-reviewed studies from eight databases. Most studies have looked at local, state, or regional taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages in the United States, but some non-US studies have looked at national taxes, including in Mexico, the United States, and France, among others.

The authors noted that there was no evidence of publication bias among studies looking at prices and sales.

  • Kristen Monaco is a writer, specializing in endocrinology, psychiatry and nephrology news. Based in the New York office, she has been with the company since 2015.


The study was funded by the World Health Organization.

Andreyeva and the co-authors reported no disclosures.

Comment authors Gibson and Roberto cited grants from Bloomberg Philanthropies.

]]> Will the government once again forget the cigarette tax formula? – Opinion http://louthonline.com/will-the-government-once-again-forget-the-cigarette-tax-formula-opinion/ Mon, 30 May 2022 18:50:00 +0000 http://louthonline.com/will-the-government-once-again-forget-the-cigarette-tax-formula-opinion/

Sri Lanka is currently facing the most serious economic crisis in its history. The main problem is that Sri Lanka’s debt has become unsustainable. This means that the revenue expected from the government is not enough to meet the planned expenditures to run the government and pay the interest on the public debt. One of the critical adjustments needed for economic recovery is to significantly increase government revenues.

In order to obtain an increase in income, a fuel and electricity pricing formula was discussed. The advantage of a formula is that it adjusts prices based on economic fundamentals in a timely and sustainable manner, overcoming the delays and inconsistencies created by leaving price adjustments to discretionary and ad hoc policy action.

However, at present, another pricing formula that was presented in previous budgets has been forgotten. This is the formula for pricing and taxing cigarettes.

Several past insights from Verité Research and similar research interventions from the Institute of Policy Studies as well as the National Tobacco and Alcohol Taxation Authority (NATA) have repeatedly pointed out that failure to s Engaging in the proper taxation of cigarettes has a significant impact on income.

A previous overview by Verité research calculated that the government would have raised an additional $20 billion in revenue from cigarette taxes in 2020 if the taxes had been adjusted in line with the indexation policy articulated in the 2019 budget; and if these tax adjustments were calibrated and applied rationally based on the length of the cigarette, to all the different brands of cigarettes on the market.

This overview presents the calculation of this revenue consequence from 2021 to 2023. It finds that Sri Lanka will have forfeited Rs. 85 billion from 2020 to 2022 due to the failure to implement the formula, and correcting this failure would increase revenue from cigarette taxation by Rs. 45 billion in 2023.

Will the new budget resume taxation on cigarettes, where it remained in 2019?
The March 2019 budget speech announced a policy to systematically index cigarette prices to nominal GDP growth.

In the words of the Minister of Finance at the time, “excise duty on cigarettes will henceforth be based on indexation with a minimum annual increase in duty taking into account annual inflation and GDP growth. This will ensure income protection and affordability control.

The methodological guidelines needed to implement the cigarette tax formula have been published and are available to the government (Verité Research, A Technical Case for Affordability Based Pricing of Cigarettes, September 2014). However, Sri Lanka has not since implemented this policy announced in the budget.

As Sri Lanka is about to announce a new budget, in the midst of its economic crisis, it would do well to implement the cigarette tax formula and recoup the significant revenue lost by not doing so.
The calculations reveal that if the indexation formula is implemented, the government can increase its revenue by 45 billion in 2023.

To put revenue collection into perspective, this additional revenue can double the support in the form of Samurdhi payments which are intended to relieve the poorest and most vulnerable bottom three income deciles in Sri Lanka. In addition to income benefits, social benefits in the form of reduced health harm from cigarette smoking are an additional social benefit that will also result in reduced health care costs, if the cigarette tax formula is properly implemented.

How to apply the cigarette tax formula?
The methodological and technical guidance for cigarette pricing and taxation in Sri Lanka based on Verité Research’s working paper (A Technical Case for Affordability Based Pricing of Cigarettes, September 2014) solves three critical analytical problems: (1) Finding the reference price for the most type of cigarette consumed (2) Specify the criteria on which the reference price of cigarettes must be updated (3) Apply a consistent method for price differences between the different types of cigarettes.

Application of the methodology according to the working paper shows that the current price of JPGL cigarettes is Rs 29 lower than the reference price (see graph). Applying the criterion of a 75% tax on the price of cigarettes, the targeted taxation per cigarette by brand is shown in the table.

The methodology requires an estimate of the benchmark price for JPGL which is calculated to maintain the same level of affordability the cigarette brand had from 1981 to 2000.

Affordability is maintained by increasing the price of JPGL cigarettes in line with nominal GDP growth. This figure is estimated at 25% in 2022 and 20% in 2023 (this is a conservative estimate, as explained below).

The prices of the other brands of cigarettes are then calculated by adjusting the reference price in relation to the length of the other brands in order to avoid substitution between cigarettes.

A tax of 75% on the price is applied to the price estimates which then provide the target tax rates. The calculated revenue loss is the difference between the tax revenue and the estimated tax and the estimated tax revenue under the policy, for the quantity sold.

The quantity sold is calculated by applying a price elasticity of demand of 0.5 (based on the international standard for calculating the demand for cigarettes) on the quantity sold in 2019, to predict sales.

Calculate revenue lost due to not applying the formula
This overview updates these calculations and finds that the recurring repercussions of the failure to implement the formula on the price and taxation of cigarettes resulted in a revenue loss of Rs. 29 billion for 2021 and will result by a further loss of revenue of Rs. 36 billion in 2022.

Therefore, extrapolating from 2019, the cumulative shortfall from 2020 to 2022 will be Rs. 85 billion, because the formula has not been applied. This equates to nearly two years of spending on Samurdhi social benefits, which are paid to more than a quarter of Sri Lankan households.

The price and tax formula calculations result from applying a cumulative cigarette price inflation of 50% for the two years from December 2021 to December 2023. The annualized inflation rate for the first four months of 2022 is 49.5%.

For food inflation, the annualized rate is 60%. Therefore, the cigarette price estimate is based on applying a conservative inflation projection to the formula for the next 20 months.

In other words, the actual increase in prices and taxes required by the formula may well turn out to be higher, when evaluated at the end of this period.

Failure to tax cigarettes since 2020
A previous overview, “Cigarette Tax Indexation, Getting It Right and Getting it Wrong” (Verité Research, August 2019) showed how the cigarette tax formula, despite being announced, was not properly implemented in 2019.
This pattern of failure continued and accumulated over the years that followed. There have been three cases in which cigarette taxation and prices have been changed since November 2019 (when a presidential election was held in Sri Lanka).

Initially (December 2019): Cigarette excise duty has been increased by amounts ranging from Rs 13.36 to Rs 13.36. Rs 48.35 per stick for different cigarettes. However, this only offset the removal of VAT and NBT taxes on cigarettes and therefore did not increase the price or tax on the price of cigarettes.

In the second case (2021): The price of the most consumed brand of cigarettes in Sri Lanka, JPGL was reduced from Rs 65 in 2020 to Rs 70 in 2021, with no change in taxation until November 2021.

In May 2022, it remained at the same price. In May 2022, the price of the rest of the cigarette brands except Capstan, which is less than 60 mm and Bristol, show an increase compared to 2021 prices.
Third instance (November 2021): The 2021 budget speech proposed an increase in the price of cigarettes by Rs. 5. The total tax rate on the price of cigarettes was however reduced in this budget.

And, for cigarettes under 60mm, which had the second highest market share, while the price tax rate did not decrease, the absolute amount of tax was reduced by nearly 50% with a similar price reduction. That is, the tax per cigarette has been reduced from Rs. 13.36 to Rs. 6.75.

The failure to implement indexation means that the government has given up and continues to give up an important stream of revenue. The cumulative shortfall from 2020 to the end of 2022 amounts to Rs 85 billion.
If the indexation is properly implemented, it is expected to generate additional revenue of Rs. social transfers to the poorest in society.

The benefits of implementing the formula also extend to a substantial reduction in health damage associated with cigarette smoking.

At a time when the government is required to raise revenue to ensure debt sustainability and seeks to raise VAT despite annualized inflation above 50%, there is a strong case for cigarette pricing enforcement and the tax formula to increase government revenue and reduce the tax burden on other forms of essential consumption.

(Verité Research is an independent Colombo-based think tank that provides strategic analysis to high-level decision makers in economics, law, politics and the media.
Comments are welcome. Email publications@veriteresearch.org)

What is complex globalization? – Rebellion Research http://louthonline.com/what-is-complex-globalization-rebellion-research/ Tue, 24 May 2022 19:56:20 +0000 http://louthonline.com/what-is-complex-globalization-rebellion-research/

What is complex globalization?

Globalization or Globalization is an umbrella term for a complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural and political changes viewed as growing interdependence. Furthermore, Iintegration and interaction between people and businesses in disparate locations.

Most countries are now accelerating the integration of manufacturing and services.

This article attempts to calculate the technical complexity of manufacturing exports of 40 representative countries from the perspective of value-added trade based on the OECD-TIVA database. Panel data are used to investigate the impact of producer services imports on the technical complexity of value-added manufacturing exports of all countries in the sample, exploring commonalities and differences between countries. The overall import of producer services is found to have a positive impact on the technical complexity of value-added manufacturing exports in both developed and developing countries.

This influence on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added exports in developing countries is often greater than in developed countries. It turns out that the import of financial services and transport services has a greater impact on the countries in the sample and that the degree of impact of the different imports of producer services is different from the point of view of the country. provision of services to imported producers.

GVC production processes are increasingly decentralized and fragmented. It induces intra-product exchanges, which means that not all the technical content contained in a country’s export products is provided by the country itself, including the technical contribution of foreign intermediate inputs.

Much of the value added of manufactured exports in developed countries comes from the service sector. Yvonne Wolfmayr (2012) [1] carried out an empirical analysis of the manufacturing industry of certain countries of the European Union. The results show that a country’s domestic service inputs do not have a positive impact on its exports of manufactured goods.

But importing service inputs has a significant positive impact on a country’s manufacturing industry exports. Swenson et al. (2012) [2] conducted an in-depth study on the relationship between the import of intermediate goods and the export of a country and found that the import of intermediate goods of heterogeneous firms has a significant promotional effect on the export, which comes from high-quality, high-tech intermediates. contributions. Domestic researchers also carried out in-depth research and studied the relationship between the import of producer services and the technological progress of China’s manufacturing industry through the dynamic panel GMM model, and calculated the contribution of producer services of the Chinese manufacturing industry segment using FH and other indices.

The results show that importing production services promotes technological progress in the manufacturing industry. Hu Liza and Luo Liying (2017) (4) pointed out that increasing imports of producer services can significantly improve the quality of export products in manufacturing, and that different producer services have different effects on improving the quality of export products.

Above that, scholars from home and abroad discussed the relationship between the import of producer services and the technical complexity of manufacturing exports. Indeed, a country imports production services, some of which become the final consumer goods of the importing country. But some of which are put into the manufacturing industry as intermediate goods.

So what role does a country’s importation of services from foreign producers in manufacturing as an intermediate product play in improving the quality of its manufactured exports? Based on the research of many researchers, this article attempts to use the OECD-TIVA Input-Output Tables database to select import data of producer services in the manufacturing industry of representative countries from 1995 to 2016, which makes the conclusion more reliable. .

Currently, major countries around the world are increasingly concerned about the status of their manufacturing industry in the global value chain. Trade in value added can measure and reflect the characteristics of world trade. This article attempts to measure a country’s level of manufacturing export technology from the perspective of value-added trade. We replace traditional export value with domestic value added in exports, and replace RCA based on gross trade with RCA based on domestic value added trade to eliminate foreign value added in exports, this which reduces the erroneous estimate of the actual technology content of a country’s manufacturing exports according to the complexity index of traditional export technologies under the dividing system(s) of the global value chain.

In this article, the technical complexity index proposed by Hausmann et al. (2005) and the method of Liao Zefang and Li Ting (2017) [6] serve as a benchmark for constructing the technological complexity of a country’s exports based on value added. Development of a value-added export technology complexity index:


(xvi / X,İN PRODIGY,

In equation (1), VESII is the technical complexity of value-added exports of industry (all industries, i.e. country), which reflects the technical structure of the export industry (country).C represents value-added export countries or regions; i for a specific industry; xvi refers to the national value added of exports of industry i in country c; Xv represents the national value added of exports of all industries of country C; xvi/Xv is the proportion of domestic value added in exports of industry i of country C relative to domestic value added in exports of all industries. We use NP RODYi to represent the technical complexity of value-added export of industry I. The specific expression is as follows:

NPRODY, = { {[(x/X)/(«,,/X,))”} 

In Formula (2), yc represents the per capita GDP of Country C, and represents the country’s dominant comparative advantage in industry I.X(XVI/XV) represents the proportion of the domestic value added in the 

No. 4 ( General, No. 318) Journal of Industrial Technological Economics 

Apr. 2020 

exports of industry I in all countries in the world. 

The WTO-OECD launched its value-added database in 2013.In this paper, the top 40 countries in value-added trade were collected as the object of study. The value-added exports accounts for more than 91 percent of the global total, which is representative to a certain extent. We collected data from these sample countries from 1995 to 2016, and calculated the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added exports for each country. The ranking of value-added export technology complexity of representative years 2 is listed here, as shown in Table 1 due to the word limit. Looking at the data for 2005, 2011 and 2016, the top 15 countries are almost all high-income countries. Finland, Ireland, Switzerland and Japan have been hovering in the top four.

Developing and emerging economies are all below the 15th. This phenomenon shows that the manufacturing products of high-income countries generally have higher export quality, and the export products are rich in the value-added created at home. They are mainly high- tech or medium – high- tech products. In contrast, manufactured exports from developing and emerging economies are of modest quality. The domestic value-added content of these countries’ exports is not high, and the technological content of their products is medium or even low. It is worth noting that China ranked 36th in the technical complexity of its manufacturing value-added exports in 2005, which is rising to 31st in 2011 and 21st in 2016. The quality of China’s manufactured exports has improved, especially in 2016. This may have a relation with China’s “Made in China 2025” strategy. 

Countries in the world differ greatly in geographical location, natural environment, infrastructure, economic system, per capita GDP, residents’ education level and trade openness. So, what causes the high and low technical complexity of manufacturing value-added exports? Countries make the import of foreign producer services as a favorable “additive” for their own manufacturing production and export. What is the promotion effect of it on the technical level of manufacturing export? These are the questions to explore in this paper. 

This paper examines the impact and degree of imported producer service intermediate input on the technical complexity of value-added export of a country’s manufacturing industry from the transnational level. The basic hypothesis is that the import of producer services as an intermediate input will have a positive impact on the improvement of the technical complexity of a country’s manufacturing value-added export. The higher the level of producer service import, the greater the effect on the technical complexity of value-added export of manufacturing industry in the importing country. 

Model setting and variable selection 

By constructing the model, this paper selects representative countries as samples for empirical research. The economic development level (per capita GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), human capital accumulation (EDU), research and development activities (RD) and market scale of each country were selected as the control variables to construct the following model: 

Invesi; = 4, +a, Inps:, + Ingdp.: + Infdi, + Inedu:, + Inrd:, + Inscale: +u; + €; 

In Equation (3), i represents the country, t represents the year, and vesi represents the technical complexity of value-added export of manufacturing industry at the national level of each country. PSit represents the import volume of producers of various countries;GDPit stands for GDP per capita within a country; FDlit stands for foreign direct investment by country; Eduit stands for human capital accumulation, which is represented by the enrollment rate of university education.

RDit stands for research and development activity, which is measured by countries’ R&D spending as a share of GDP; scale represents the market size of each country, measured by the total population of each country. Ui is the intercept term representing the heterogeneity of the individual, and Eit represents the random perturbation term that changes with the individual and time. 

In addition, the import of producer services is from the OECD input-output Tables database. The Data of GDPit per capita, FRUIT of foreign direct investment in each country, Eduit of human capital accumulation, RDit of research and development activities and scaleit of market are from The database of The World Bank Open Data. Moreover, in order to reduce multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity, natural logarithm of the above control variables was taken before linear regression. 

2.2 Empirical test and result analysis 

2.2.1 Estimated results for all countries 

This paper uses cross-country panel data to explore the impact of imported producer service intermediate inputs on the technical complexity of value-added exports of manufacturing industries in major countries. From the regression results of the fixed-effect model (Table 2), the following conclusions can be drawn: 

Imported producer service intermediate input has a significant positive impact on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in all sample countries, and the average increased elasticity is 0. 0729%. This indicates that the import of producer services has a promoting effect on the technical level of manufacturing export. 

Per capita GDP, human capital accumulation and R&D activities in each country have a significant positive effect on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export. Their improvement was 0.7934%, 0. 1766% and 0. 1010% respectively. Therefore, the country should pay attention to the cultivation of talents, encourage scientific research activities and actively carry out economic construction to promote development, which improves the export technology level of the manufacturing industry. 

There is a negative correlation between foreign direct investment and technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export. 

This is not in line with theoretical expectations. Producer service import and foreign direct investment are ways to upgrade the export technology level of a country’s manufacturing industry, and they have a substitution relationship. This shows that foreign investment in some countries needs to be guided in a way that is more conducive to the development of their own manufacturing industries. 

(4) There is a negative correlation between market size and technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export. This, too, is inconsistent with theoretical expectations. In this paper, population size is used to measure the variable of market size, and there are two reasons for this result: (1) population size cannot truly reflect the actual market potential and possible economies of scale of a country;(2) Under the background of active participation of countries in GVCs, the significance of population size to countries (or regions) at different stages of economic development is different. 

This paper selects representative countries as sample objects for empirical research to build a model. There are 39 countries in the sample, of which 26 are high-income countries and the remaining 13 are high- and middle-income countries, but these 13 countries are basically emerging economies. In this paper, the sample of 39 countries is divided into two groups: one group is high-income countries (developed countries), and the other group is developing countries, including emerging economies .

The regression coefficients of producer services imports in developed and developing and emerging economies are significantly positive. It shows that the import of producer service intermediate input has a positive impact on the improvement of technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in all sample countries. For every 1% increase in producer import, the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in developed countries increases by 0.0347%, while that in developing countries and emerging economies increases by 0. 0767%. It can be seen that the effect of producer services import on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in developed countries is less than that in developing countries.  

From the perspective of developed countries, the elasticity of per capita GDP, human capital EDU and domestic R&D activity RD in Model (2) are all positive. The increase elasticity of per capita GDP and human capital EDU is 1.1447% and 0.3286% respectively, and it is significant at the level of 1%, which indicates that the level of economic development and human capital have a positive promoting effect on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in developed countries. The improvement elasticity of RD of R&D activity is 0. 0370, but it is not significant. 

From the perspective of developing countries, the promotion elasticity of per capita GDP and domestic R&D activity RD in Model (4) are both positive. The increased elasticity of GDP per capita and RD of domestic R&D activities are 0. 7450% and 0. 1750% respectively, and are significant at the 1% level, which indicates that the level of economic development and domestic R&D activities have a positive promoting effect on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in developing countries and emerging countries. The elasticity of human capital EDU was -0.0277%, but it was not significant. This suggests that developing and emerging economies need to do more to cultivate talent. 

The level of economic development has a positive impact on the two kinds of countries. The elasticity of the index to the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export of developed countries is obviously higher than that of developing countries.

The elasticity of human capital enhancement in developed countries is 0.3286%, and that in developing and emerging economies is -0.0277%. Therefore, human capital in developed countries plays a greater role in promoting human capital, which may be related to the large number of people receiving higher education in developed countries, good ability to digest and absorb new technologies, and relatively high efficiency of resource allocation. The elasticity of RD of R&D activities to increase the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export in developed countries is lower than that in developing countries. Therefore, domestic R&D activities play a better role in promoting the upgrading of manufacturing technology levels in developing countries than in developed countries. 

The elasticity of foreign direct investment to the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export is negative in both categories of countries. The lifting elasticity of FDI for developed countries is -0.0253%, and for developing countries and emerging economies is -0.0369%. It shows that foreign direct investment is not conducive to the improvement of technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export.

The possible reason for this phenomenon is that foreign direct investment and producer service import are both ways to promote the upgrading of the manufacturing technology level of the importing country, and they can replace each other to a certain extent. Countries should make more practical policies when attracting foreign investment and services from producers. The elasticity of market size to the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export of the two categories of countries is also negative. The elasticity of market size to developed countries is -3.0083%, and that of developing countries and emerging economies is -0.9021%, which indicates that market size is not conducive to the increase of technical complexity of value-added export of manufacturing industries in various countries. 

Model setting and data selection 

The effect of different technology intensity of producer service import on the technical complexity of value-added export of manufacturing industry may be quite different due to the difference of each producer service. Therefore, this paper makes an empirical analysis of the effect of subsector producer services import on the technological complexity of value-added exports of manufacturing. 

The explained variable is the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added exports of each country, and the core explanatory variable is the import amount of producer services used by each industry with different technology intensity of input manufacturing in the model constructed. 

Invesi, = 2, +a, In(trans)+a, In( pote, )+ az In( fi – nan,)+a,In(hause;.)+a;In(reale, )+ a. In(compu, ) + a, (resea,)+ Byx jie +u, +;, 


The control variables are as follows: GDP IT is the per capita GDP of each country; FDIIT refers to foreign direct investment of each country; eduit stands for human capital accumulation, which is represented by the enrollment rate of university education. edit stands for R&D activity, expressed as a share of each country’s R&D spending in GDP; scaleit represents the market size of each country, measured by the total population of each country. data on imports of producer services come from the OECD database, and data on GDP per capita, foreign direct investment by country, human capital, research and development, and market size come from the World Bank database. 

Empirical test and result analysis 

In order to investigate the influence of foreign producer services with different characteristics on the technical complexity of value-added export of manufacturing industry in the importing country, this paper adopts the fixed effect of panel data. The import volume of 7 types of producer services as the core explanatory variables were successively included into the econometric equation for regression. The degree of influence is examined in this way. 

This paper finds that :(1) From the perspective of the significance of the impact. The seven types of service trade. As the core explanatory variable have different effects on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added export. The effect of financial services on the technical complexity of value-added export of the manufacturing industry of the importing country is positive, and the significance level is 1%. Furthermore, the effect of transportation service on the technical complexity of value-added export of the manufacturing industry of the importing country is positive, and the significance level is 5%. The effect of R&D and other business services on the technical complexity of export of value-added manufacturing of the importing country is positive, and the significance level is 5%.

In addition, the effect of real estate service import is positive, but not significant. It may be that the real estate service itself has a low technical content and its acting mechanism as intermediate input is not significant. The influence of computer service import is positive and not significant. But the computer service contains rich knowledge and information, its technology content is high, and the result is not consistent with our expectations. The influence effect of import of leasing service and post and telecommunications service is small negative value, neither of which is significant. 

(2) From the perspective of impact degree, this paper makes judgment and comparison through the estimated value of producer service import sub-item. The estimated coefficient of financial service is the largest and positive, and the improvement elasticity is 0.0779% among the seven types of producer service imports. Furthermore, the estimated coefficient of transportation service is large and positive, and the improvement elasticity is 0.0657%. Thus, the estimated coefficient of R & D and other business services is positive, and the improvement elasticity is 0.0258%

The estimated coefficient of real estate service is positive, and the improvement elasticity is 0. 0134%. Furthermore, the estimated coefficient of computer service remains positive and the lifting elasticity is 0.0020%. In addition, the estimated coefficients for rental services and postal and telecommunications services were negative. Moreover, with the elasticity of improvement of -0.0237% and -0.0054%, respectively.

As intermediate inputs of manufacturing producers, they contain different technical content and different mechanisms of action due to the different characteristics of producer service imports. Therefore, their influence on manufacturing value-added export technology level is also very different. This paper assumes the import of producer services with higher technical content. The intermediate input will have a more significant impact on the value-added export technology level of the manufacturing industry of the importing country. However, the empirical results do not fully support this hypothesis, and the reasons may be related to the quantity and use of producer service imports. 

(3) From the perspective of other control variables, the effects of per capita GDP. In addition, human capital accumulation EDU and R&D activity RD are positive and significant;The influence of FDI and market scale is negative and significant 

Conclusions and policy recommendations 

From the perspective of value-added export trade, this paper examines whether the import of intermediate inputs of producer services in each country’s manufacturing industry has an impact on the technical complexity of value-added export of a country’s manufacturing industry. The empirical results show that the import of producer services can improve the national manufacturing industry. 

Value-added exports are technically-complex, and this phenomenon is widespread in the world. The empirical results show that the effect of producer services import on the technical complexity of manufacturing value-added exports in developed countries is less than that in developing countries. 

The effect of import of producer services on the technical complexity of value-added exports of manufacturing industries is different, and the added value of import of producer services of different sectors on the manufacturing industries of different types of countries is different. 

There are also differences in the promotion effect of technical complexity. The empirical results show that the import of financial services and transportation services has a greater impact on the two sample countries. 

Policy recommendations 

The conclusions above not only have guiding significance for the policies adopted by OECD countries. However, also have important reference value for our country with rapid economic development.

(1) The government will increase its support for the import of producer services. Our government should improve the openness of service trade and pay attention to the openness of producer services. This approach can attract more and better quality foreign producers to invest in the production. And operation activities of China’s manufacturing industry. And play its many economic effects is an important way to promote the technical level of manufacturing export 

(2) Pay attention to the input of material capital and other resources. In order to improve the level of export technology in the manufacturing industry, we should not only pay attention to the input of human capital and research and development activities, but also increase the input of material capital. At the same time, various supporting resources of the industry must be timely. Infrastructure construction is an important condition to promote the import of producer services. The construction of Internet facilities platform, logistics information platform and information transmission platform is conducive to the development of producer services. 

(3) Gradually lowering trade barriers and market access thresholds. At present, the market access restrictions of some producer services in China are relatively strict. And the industry openness is low. Their performance is that the proportion of imported services in the intermediate input of manufacturing industry is low, which is not conducive to making up for the shortage of domestic producers’ service supply. Producer services with better import quality provide sufficient advanced elements. For the manufacturing industry to improve the technical level of export. 


There is no unified translation of “Trade in value-added” in China at present. The author believes that “value-added trade” is relatively accurate, and we can simply translate it into “value-added trade”. 

The representative years we selected include 2005, 2011 and 2016 due to the number of words, 

3 The World Bank database has classified South Korea as a high-income country. 

4 According to the world bank database, high-income countries include: the United States, Germany, Japan, Italy, France, South Korea, the commonwealth, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Poland, Belgium, Austria, Singapore, Australia, the Czech republic, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, Finland, Chile, Denmark, Norway, Hungary and Israel; Middle – and high-income countries include: China, Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, Turkey, Argentina, South Africa, Romania; Low – and middle-income countries include India, Indonesia and Vietnam. 

Back To News

Lee Spelman


[1] [J].

Yvonne Wolfmayr, Export Performance and Increased Service Content in the National Institute of Manufacturing Economics Review, 2012, 4 (220): 36~51.

[2] Swenson, Deborah L. The Link Between Imported Intermediate Inputs and Exports: Evidence from Chinese Firms [J]. Journal of International Economics, 2012, (101): 386~101.

[3]Chen Qifei, Liu Zhibiao. Import Services Trade, Technological Spillovers and Total Factor Productivity – Empirical Analysis Based on Bilateral Services Trade Data for 47 Countries [J]. World Economic Literature, 2015, (5):1–21.

[4] Hu Liza, Luo Liying. Effects of producer services imports on the quality of Chinese manufacturing exports [D]. Changsha: Hunan University 2017.

[5] Qi Junyan, Lv Jianhui. Impact of Imported Intermediaries on the Net Technical Complexity of Chinese Exports: From the Perspective of Intermediaries of Different Technical Levels [J]. economics of finance and trade, 2016, (2):114~126.

[6] Liao Zefang, Li Ting. Foreign Trade Structure, Technological Complexity and Competitiveness of China’s Value-Added Exports [J]. contemporary economics, 2017, (3): 48 – 58.

What is complex globalization?

Imposing high tariffs on imported Russian gas: would it be effective? http://louthonline.com/imposing-high-tariffs-on-imported-russian-gas-would-it-be-effective/ Tue, 17 May 2022 15:39:46 +0000 http://louthonline.com/imposing-high-tariffs-on-imported-russian-gas-would-it-be-effective/

As Russia’s invasion of Ukraine continues and many call for tougher sanctions, an alternative to a full energy embargo has been discussed in the form of European Union tariffs on imports of Russian gas. The Initiative on Global Markets interviewed American and European economists to express their views on this proposal. Romesh Vaitilingam write the results.

We asked the EU and US panels whether they agreed or disagreed with the following statement, and if so, to what extent and with what degree of confidence:

The high tariffs imposed by the European Union on imports of Russian natural gas would be an effective measure to reduce the flow of revenue to Russia while limiting disruptions in supplies to Europe.

Of our 43 American experts, 41 took part in this survey; of our 47 European experts, 36 participated – for a total of 77 expert reactions. Almost three-quarters of panelists agreed or strongly agreed with the statement (of which European experts were more likely to say they strongly agreed), most of the rest were unsure and a handful disagreed. does not agree.

Weighted by each expert’s confidence in their answer, 27% of the European panel totally agree, 48% agree, 22% are unsure and 3% disagree. Among the US panel (again weighted by each expert’s confidence in their answer), 6% strongly agree, 67% agree, 18% unsure, and 9% disagree. Overall, in both panels, 16% strongly agree, 57% agree, 20% are unsure, and 6% disagree (totals do not always add up to 100 due to rounded).

More details on the experts’ views come in the short comments they can include when participating in the survey. Among those who agree or strongly agree, Franklin Allen at Imperial College London says: “It would reduce the money going to Russia, mitigate the damage to European economies and potentially provide funds for the reconstruction of Ukraine”. Guillaume Nordhaus at Yale adds, “High and rising tariffs are clearly the best approach, primarily to avoid quantitative restrictions. And Christophe Udry at Northwestern directs us to a recent VoxEU article on ‘the simple economy of a tariff on Russian energy imports”.

Among the panelists who say they are undecided, Beata Javorcik in Oxford comments:

“Russia is likely to retaliate and cut off gas supplies to Europe.” Austan Goolsbee at Chicago notes, “It would hurt them, but it would also hurt Europe.” And Pastor Lubos in Chicago says: “It would harm EU countries unequally. Solidarity within the EU would be necessary. Gas is difficult to replace in the short term.

Among the panelists who say they are undecided, Beata Javorcik in Oxford comments:

“Russia is likely to retaliate and cut off gas supplies to Europe.” Austan Goolsbee at Chicago notes, “It would hurt them, but it would also hurt Europe.” And Pastor Lubos in Chicago says: “It would harm EU countries unequally. Solidarity within the EU would be necessary. Gas is difficult to replace in the short term.

Any experts who disagree with the statement add short explanatory comments to their opinions. They include Pinelopi Goldberg at Yale who says, “Sanctions have never worked. And in the current context, the EU would pay a high price. Richard Schmalensee at MIT protests: ‘WTO-illegal, may violate contracts, Russian response uncertain’. EU economists seem to favor price caps contingent on disturbances. And Bengt Holmström at MIT concludes, “If efficiency means ending war, tariffs won’t.”

Elasticities and pricing mechanisms

Several panelists suggested the importance of demand and supply elasticities for Russian gas, as well as the mechanisms by which prices are set. Of those who agree, David Author to MIT’s remarks: “The high substitutability of non-Russian and Russian gas means that Russia should bear most of the impact. Olivier Blanchard at the Peterson Institute mentions: “Russia could decide to sell elsewhere, but at a lower price (Ural discount). May not decrease world supply much. And Patrick Honohan at Trinity College Dublin warns: “But effectiveness depends on elasticities of substitution in importing countries, about which there is a wide range of opinions.

Others who agree are equally cautious. Larry Samuelson at Yale observes: “There is a trade-off – higher tariffs would be more effective in limiting revenue, but would also cause more disruption. And Pol Antras at Harvard says, “Given the likely price impact, this seems like a good policy. But I’m less sure the supply won’t be disrupted. In any case, a risk worth taking. He directs us to a play written shortly after the invasion of the case for punitive taxes on Russian energy.

Panelists who said they were unsure also mentioned elasticities and likely impact. Karl Whelan at University College Dublin responds: ‘It is unclear where the short-term impact of this tariff lies. With difficulties in finding alternative supplies, this could simply increase EU prices. Anil Kashyap in Chicago says, “It’s hard to know the elasticity of demand and the speed at which adjustments can be made.” Daniel Sturm at the London School of Economics adds: “It is unclear whether the tariffs would lead to substantial declines in Russian export prices over a relevant time horizon.” And Christian Lez in Chicago concludes: “Could send a very important political and symbolic message. But economic effect difficult to predict; depends on elasticities of supply and demand and pricing mechanisms.

Opinions on likely elasticities are also expressed by experts who disagree with the statement. Jan Pieter Krahnen at the Goethe University of Frankfurt declares: “It is a question of tariff incidence; gas demand is currently price inelastic, so the exporter’s revenue may not fall at all. And Michael Greenstone in Chicago suggests that: “In the short term, tariffs wouldn’t do much: there are no substitutes. A longer-term gradual introduction would work best.

Full embargo

Finally, two of the experts who agree refer to the alternative sanction to energy tariffs of a total embargo. Daron Acemoglu at MIT says: “‘Effective’ yes, but probably not as effective as total bans. The exact effect on Europe is also difficult to know. And Pete Klenow at Stanford links to a widely discussed report on the potential economic effects on Germany of a halt to all energy imports from Russia.



  • The survey is conducted regularly on different topics by The Initiative on Global Markets, University of Chicago Booth School of Business. All comments made by the experts are included in the full survey results for the WE and European panels.
  • The post office represents the point of view of its author(s), and not the position of LSE Business Review or the London School of Economics.
  • Highlighted picture by Quinten de Graaf on Unsplash
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Sri Lanka is running out of fuel today, PM tells nation http://louthonline.com/sri-lanka-is-running-out-of-fuel-today-pm-tells-nation/ Tue, 17 May 2022 06:48:52 +0000 http://louthonline.com/sri-lanka-is-running-out-of-fuel-today-pm-tells-nation/

Sri Lanka’s new prime minister said on Monday the crisis-hit nation was on its last day of petrol, as the country’s energy minister told citizens not to join long lines of fuel. fuel wait that has galvanized weeks of anti-government protests.

Ranil Wickremesinghe, appointed prime minister on Thursday, said in an address to the nation that the country urgently needed $75 million in foreign currency to pay for essential imports.

“At the moment, we only have one day’s supply of gasoline. The next two months will be the most difficult of our lives,” he said.

“We must be prepared to make sacrifices and meet the challenges of this period.”

Read more: Sri Lanka to borrow $200m from Pakistan?

Two shipments of petrol and two of diesel using an Indian line of credit could bring relief in the coming days, he added, but the country is also facing a shortage of 14 essential medicines.

The crisis has led to widespread protests against President Gotabaya Rajapaksa and his family, culminating in the resignation of his older brother Mahinda as prime minister last week after fighting between government supporters and protesters left 9 people dead. and 300 wounded.

Desperate bid

The president replaced him with Wickremesinghe, an opposition parliamentarian who held the post five times before, in a desperate attempt to appease protesters.

But protesters said they would continue their campaign as long as Gotabaya Rajapaksa remains president. They also called Wickremesinghe a lackey and criticized his appointment of four ministers, all members of the political party led by the Rajapaksa brothers.

Wickremesinghe said on Monday he took the role for the good of the country.

In Colombo, the commercial capital, long queues of auto rickshaws, the city’s most popular means of transport, lined up at gas stations in a fruitless wait for fuel.

“I stood in line for more than six hours,” said a driver, Mohammad Ali. “We spend almost six to seven hours in line just to get gas.”

Another driver, Mohammad Naushad, said the gas station where he was waiting ran out of fuel.

“We’ve been here since 7-8am and it’s still unclear if they’ll have fuel or not,” he said. “When will he come, no one knows. Is there a reason to wait here, we don’t know either.

Read more: Crisis-hit Sri Lanka braces for new government

Hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, rising oil prices and populist tax cuts in Rajapaksas, the strategic Indian Ocean island nation where China and India are fighting for influence, is in the midst of a crisis not seen since its independence in 1948.

A chronic shortage of foreign exchange has led to a inflation and shortages of medicine, fuel and other essentials, bringing thousands to the streets in protest.

A shipment of diesel using an Indian line of credit arrived in the country on Sunday, but has yet to be distributed across the island.

“Ask the public not to queue or refuel in the next three days until all 1,190 gas station deliveries are completed,” Energy Minister Kanchana said on Monday. Wijesekera.

Wickremesinghe has yet to announce key ministers, including the crucial post of finance minister, who will negotiate with the International Monetary Fund for badly needed financial aid.

Read more: Collective wisdom must prevail to pull the nation out of crisis

Former finance minister Ali Sabry had held preliminary talks with the multilateral lender, but he resigned along with Mahinda Rajapaksa last week.

Reuters with additional input from GVS News Desk